The vast majority of travel advice usually centers around flying, airports and airlines, hotels, budgets, various destinations, etc. This article is intent on exposing some tips that most people would never think of – housekeeping items mainly. They may not save you a lot of money as most travel tips seem to do but they are invaluable when you are traveling. Especially if you have a business presentation or meeting to go to the following day.Gum – you perhaps already know this trick. To get gum out of hair (beside cutting it), off a garment or a shoe, you ice it with ice cubes and then break it off when it hardens. Do you know how to get ring around the collar stains out though? Put hair shampoo on it and spread it around the collar. Shampoos are designed to remove oils from hair so they are a natural for skin oil as well.Need to wash some clothes in the sink but the hotel doesn’t have a laundry to dry them? Try hanging them in the bathroom with the light on. They will be dry by morning. For faster drying turn on the heat lamp (but don’t put the clothes under it or too near it!). Want to rid your room of flies but you have no bug spray? Use hair spray instead. And if you really think ahead, take some laundry detergent with you in a plastic sandwich bag (NOT in your carry-on however) and a small spray bottle. If your clothes need ‘freshening’ , you can spray the detergent in the obvious places (underarms, down the front, etc) and then rinse them off and dry them as directed here.If you are suspicious about a hotel room or cruise cabin having Legionnaires disease spores, immediately run a hot shower (with the bathroom door open) for 5 minutes and leave the room. It will dissipate any possible spores. A money saving tip: most people know if you forget a toothbrush or need any assorted toiletries, ask the front desk before venturing off to buy anything. Many hotels have toothpaste, deodorant, combs, razors, etc for free. One final tip that MIGHT save you money. Buy a collapsible cooler and pack it in your suitcase. When you arrive at your hotel, if it doesn’t have a fridge in the room (or they charge extra for them), fill it with ice and you can keep food and drinks for days. Really helps cut down on the bar and restaurant tab when you can buy a beer for less than $1 in a 6-pack versus $2.75 (plus tip) at a lounge.These tips are valuable when you need them but are not ones you would normally think of so re-read this article several times. One day when you need some help along these lines, you will probably remember them by accident.
Children do not like doing what they are told. They never have done and I do not suppose that they ever will. This is a fact of life and there is little point in trying to change things. A youngster will push the boundaries as far as is possible and they find it reassuring to reach the limit of these boundaries. This gives them a feeling that you care about them. However, if you are constantly arguing about their lifestyle then things can become difficult. When you are dealing with how to get children to live a healthy lifestyle, the last thing that you need is confrontation. This can lead to other problems and backfire in the way of eating disorders etc.
Eating habits are a major concern and if you are concerned with how to get children to live a healthy lifestyle then it is one area which must be addressed. Children have a natural desire to eat junk food. To a degree this will do them no harm and if you try to stop this natural instinct you will probably encourage them to pursue it in excess. As long as your child is eating an otherwise healthy and well balanced diet then they will suffer no long term ill effects from the occasional meal or snack of junk food. What you must be keen to avoid is a constant diet of processed and pre-packaged foods. You should try to give them a well balanced and fresh meal every day and make sure that they have healthy snacks for when they get hungry between meals.
Many guidelines have been given as to how to get children to live a healthy lifestyle when it comes to their diet. Some of these are produced by manufacturers of so-called healthy foods. These may include the increasingly large range of healthy option processed foods. Although many of these are an improvement on the original products you may still find that the reduced levels of fat, salt etc are still very high. The best advice is to use as many fresh and natural products as possible and try not to substitute these for processed foods. Many nutrients are negated during the preparing of these meals and are they are often surprisingly low in protein and vitamins and high in salt and fat.
Exercise must obviously be high on the agenda if you are interested to know how to get children to live a health lifestyle. There are ways of getting your children to exercise without them being aware of what you are doing. An enforced two mile jog in the morning is not going to be high on their list of favorite activities on a Saturday, but a dance class may appeal to the girls (or possibly even boys). They may be keen to train with basketball or hockey clubs and any sports such as these should be encouraged. If they are not at all interested in any sporting activities, this does not mean that they can spend all day in front of the television. Vitamin D is a very important nutrient which is becoming lacking in many children’s diet. This is produced by the body in response to sunlight. What the children are doing outside does not make any difference just being out in the daylight is what counts.
The need for fresh air and daylight is very much underestimated these days and just playing out with friends is an important example of how to get children to live a healthy lifestyle.
Before embarking on your online video production strategy you need to clarify a few things. Video has potential to increase your sales and gain you many more subscribers, so it is in your own interest to spend time planning out how you intend to best use web video production.
You need to ask yourself just who your target audience is. Understand their demographics and any other details you deem necessary. YouTube has the power to increase your traffic, but you need to understand how to use it.
It really is not worth jumping on bandwagons and doing something just because someone else is doing it. Any digital video marketing you undertake should be of strategic benefit to your business, otherwise you will not get the results you desire.
Discover a website video production strategy that you think is going to be suitable to your business model. Once you have done this you will find online video production services that can help you achieve your goals.
These questions should be answered:
- Does your customer use the internet?
- How fast is their internet connection?
- Are they using their mobile phone to access the internet?
- Are your company and products familiar to the customer?
- Do they buy regularly from you or have they bought in the past?
- Are there any other services you can offer them?
If you find your customer base uses the internet then right away you know they will be able to access video content. It would be fair assumption to conclude that you could target them with online video content. By doing YouTube marketing you will be giving yourself a better chance of grabbing sales and new customers.
Video marketing secrets
The top video site is YouTube and it has a massive number of worldwide users. However, there are many other video sites that you can load your video onto as well. There is a site called Metacafe which is fairly well known.
There are many other sites also and the more you spread your content around, the better traffic you will get. Try to vary your online video production marketing and you will reap the rewards.
Use video editing software to insert your website link into the video itself. You need to inform your viewers how they can contact you. Also add the link to the YouTube description box after you have uploaded the video.
Before you do any internet video production you should do your keyword research very carefully. If you get this wrong it can have an effect on your video rankings in the search engines.
With online video production it is important that people can locate your video otherwise you will find it hard to get traffic and indeed sales.
With this in mind you must pick keywords that have adequate monthly search volume. It is worth looking at both related keywords and also what are known as long tail keywords.
Once you have your main keyword then go and name the video file. The file name should have the keyword in it somewhere or it could even make up the whole name. When the video is loaded onto YouTube the keyword should also form the video title and be added in the description box somewhere.
What kind of online video should we be creating?
You should try to inform or educate the viewer about your product or service. It is nice to add some humour into it also, but this is not always possible.
Try not to make the video too boring in nature and at least sound happy. This should help to create a production that is engaging to the viewer. The video length should be around two minutes otherwise the person watching may become bored and look at others videos.
People love to be educated about things and you can demonstrate your product or service to them in the video. You will see plenty of examples of this on YouTube. Check out demonstrations or reviews of your favourite camera or smartphone.
We all love honesty in our reviews so talk about the good points, but don’t be afraid to mention any negatives. Your online video production will gain the trust of the viewer if you give a good honest review. The better your video the more visitors you will get coming to look at your website.
Have you ever given speeches or seminar presentations? This would be great material to capture on video. You can upload this onto YouTube, but also you could sell it as a product, perhaps as a DVD. People interested in your regular content would be keen to buy something like this as it offers tremendous value.
A video blog is also called a VLog. If you have seen or used a blog before then you know it is about reading text. A video blog is essentially blogging on camera. Why not film someone talking about the company or product and upload this footage onto the video blog. You could also video blog about the day to day events of your life or your business.
Have you ever seen a text based sales page full of testimonials? Sometimes they have a photo of the person giving the testimonial. The problem with this kind of thing is that it is not always possible to trust these testimonials.
A video testimonial is better. Ok, the trust may not become much better, but at least to be able to see and hear a real person giving the testimonial can be more favourable. You can sometimes see video testimonials after a seminar for example. Members of the audience talk about how they found the event.
Sales pages into video
A dry long text sales page can be difficult to command our attention. Why not convert these into video sales pages. It can take a bit of online video production preparation, but the results are so much better, especially if you are going to be making video for small business purposes.
When there is a voice speaking out loud the sales text then it helps to build trust. You can even demonstrate the product on camera. You don’t necessarily need to show yourself on camera either. You could just use the words from the sales page in the video and talk over it. You would be narrating the sales page in effect.
Should all of this be beyond you then look for an online video production company to handle it all for you. There are also many online video production courses available to get you on the right road.
Choose the correct online video production strategy for your business. Make sure it is going to be of use to you. You have the chance to get better sales, increase your customer base and really make a name for yourself by using online video production.
What is Employment and Support Allowance?This is intended to be a benefit to assist people who have difficulty in holding down a regular job, are long term sick or have other issues.A good friend of mine was having a terrible time with the DWP’s Employment and Support Allowance, as the allowance rates have been cut while on appeal and he was receiving contribution based employment and support allowance however this ran out and was then placed on to income based ESA less than £100 for two weeks benefit, to top it all off the appeals process is currently taking over 6 months so having realised he could not survive much longer especially not 6 months or more, he looked into getting working tax credit.As the pain in his lower back restricts him from sitting or standing for too long, he has found that going self employed is the only reasonable way to make a comfortable living and to support his family.The AppealA rather informal meeting in a room with 3 adjudicators 1 will probably be a medical practitioner and the other 2 will know the ins and outs of the law relating to ESA, they will review the appeal papers, any medical evidence you supply to support your claim and ask you some questions relating to your illness or disability and you may have to undergo a medical examination on the day. They will then decide whether the decision makers’ decision should stand or be overturned.The general consensus is that even going to a tribunal will not make much difference as the government are now taking a hard stand on reducing the benefits bill at any cost.Taking action now will be a better option.Work in a job that causes constant pain or take the sensible option?The consideration of self employment should be considered as you can work from the comfort of your own home. As long as you work for over 16 hours and can find a suitable application for your time you qualify for Working Tax Credit.What is the HMRC Working Tax Credit?Working Tax Credit from the HMRC in my opinion is a benefit that aims to make it worthwhile for people to go to work and in turn reduce the unemployment benefit figures. However Tax Credits are a very useful support benefit and should be viewed that way.How is he going to work at home?Having recently been disallowed ESA my good friend has decided to take the plunge into working from home. Having decided that setting up his own business is his best option as he can work when he is able and has the comforts of home, where he finds he can relieve the pain by changing what he does and for how long he does it.The idea of making and selling something online is rather daunting but if done correctly can be very lucrative and with the added “bonus” of getting working tax credits this can boost your initial weekly income by up to £100 if not more.Check out the disabled link on the Tax Credit calculator as claiming ESA previously qualifies you for the disablement premium.What sort of business is he going to do?Here lies the problem, when I first spoke to him about this he had no idea where to start and didn’t think he had any skills or expertise in any area, however after I showed him a couple of websites of qualified mentors and teachers he chose one, stuck with it and followed the instructions he is off to a flying start and has just had his first $500 week.
Although photography has been in the market for quite some time, some people still ask “how much it’s going to cost me?”, “what a digital camera can do?” and “why do I need photography?”Let’s look at each of them in detail:As digital photography is getting more popular, things are going to get cheaper. One of the reasons is that manufacturers are competing for market share and they are more likely to launch cheaper cameras with more functions. Just look at the compact digital camera in the market now, you can get a camera with at least 9 megapixels and 10x optical zoom at the price of less than $300. Even the DSLR cameras nowadays are getting more and more affordable.Also when competitions are getting stronger, manufacturers will try to make cameras with as many features as possible. It is like an unwritten rule that compact digital cameras nowadays must be able to record video and audio. When you launch a point and shoot camera without this feature, your potential clients might not even want to look at it.Also some digital cameras nowadays are equipped with sophisticated editing software and touch screen capability. You can now add stars, fog it up or add other wacky stuff on the camera.Since you can operate your camera with touch screen, you can expect that one day, you will see the LCD screen big enough to occupy the back of your camera. Can you imagine how much fun it is to look at your pictures in such a big screen and it will be more breath taking when the manufacturers throw in wide angle lens together.Now, when you are going into digital photography, it is only logic that you have a digital camera. Photography is more than a hobby. It is about keeping the memory of that special moment. You want to remind yourself that you were once there at that period. You want to be able to show your child that you were young once and how life was back then. It is a different experience when you look back at your photos 10 years ago. Go have a look at them now.
Individuals, who have bought new cars recently, need to apply for car insurance policies. The law in the U.S says, it is mandatory for every car owner to have an insurance policy otherwise, the person will be held liable and may have to pay hefty fine along with imprisonment.Many times, buyers thinking of buying new cars are confused and unsure as how to get car insurance. Such people can start their search for car insurance by obtaining insurance quotes from agents or better yet online.Start by locating some good insurance agents. These insurance agents give away the quotes of the different auto insurers that offer car insurance policies. However, make sure to approach several insurance agents, because most agents work for a single company. However, this method is time consuming and people may have to pay fees to the agents.Therefore, individuals may obtain car insurance quotes through Internet web sites. Simply, fill in the personal details and car details. And, within a few seconds, people will obtain car insurance quotes of different reputed companies. Compare quotes of different companies and select the one that offers best rates, discounts, benefits, and easy premiums.How to Apply For Car Insurance:After selecting a particular company, an insurance buyer may apply for insurance policy online. For that purpose, buyer may log on to the same site (from where he or she had obtained quotes), fill the car insurance application, and submit it. The back office staff of that web site sends this online form to the particular (selected) company. The insurance company then sends it’s agent to insurance buyer’s residence.The insurance agent explains all the formalities to the insurance buyer. The agent hands over another application form which individuals need to fill in. Individual has to attach certain documents while submitting the form. It typically includes copy of driver’s license, SSN (Social Security Number), address proof, copy of job offer letter, age proof, bank statements, and salary slip of past three months.Individual have to furnish car documents such as car purchase papers, car loan papers (if any) and so on. If people wish to apply for car insurance through local insurance agents, then as described earlier, individuals need to obtain quotes of different companies. Select the ideal company and ask agents to guide them with the formalities. The insurance agent then furnishes the application form and the rest of the process is same as above.Conclusion:After submitting the insurance application form, the car insurance company verifies the documents and sees whether the information furnished by applicants is true or not. If people fill any wrong information in the application form, the company rejects their form. Such applicants may find it difficult to obtain car insurance from other insurance companies too. Nobody like a liar and a cheat.If the company is convinced that the details are true, it provides car coverage to applicants. The process may take anywhere between 15 to 20 days. This is how individuals can get car insurance policies at affordable rates.To take the first step and get multiple quotes please consider the sites below. They can help you find the best deals around.
Interested in finance and insurance (F&I)? Love cars? Looking for a way to merge the two into a long-lasting and fulfilling career in the automotive industry? It’s time to consider a career in auto sales and F&I management. Now is a great time to invest in F&I training, which can provide everything you need to succeed in this career. That means you will acquire excellent leadership and communication skills and have the expertise required to handle the financial and legal aspects of a sales transaction.Automotive Business Manager programs are designed to teach the skills required to oversee the financial and legal aspects of the automotive industry. Students in these automotive training programs are trained in finance and lease options, sale of after-market products and the use of specialized software.Becoming an F&I manager means you will be in the center of the action. It also means you will have a direct impact on profitability and be rewarded accordingly. Need another reason to invest in F&I manager? Job Futures 2000 predicts that more than one-third of all jobs created in Canada will require a skilled trade designation or a college diploma.What about the extensive restructuring of the automotive industry? There has been a lot of change, but the automotive industry remains one of the world’s largest and most important business sectors. Moreover, a surge in demand is expected as consumers make purchases that would normally have been made in the last two years and additional demand is created by increases in population, new consumer offerings and improved manufacturing technology. Employment prospects for automotive sales and F&I management are good for the following reasons:
A growing shortage of well trained individuals to fill sales occupations
Service Canada predicts there will be strong demand for qualified candidates in Sales and Service, Business, Finance and Administration “because this sector will account for more than 45% of all retirements over the next five years.”
Significant worldwide growth within the automotive industryYou know what happens when demand for a specific job goes up. Salaries also go up. That’s exactly what is happening for F&I Professionals. Key elements of F&I training programs can include the following areas of study:
Business Manager’s Role in the Dealership
Financial Institutions and Their Requirements
Getting the Contracts Purchased
Credit Reporting Overview
Understanding Credit Scores and Risks
Reading Credit Reports
Prequalification Using Credit Reports
Use a Customer-Friendly, Aggressive F&I Process
Qualify Your Customer, Use The Right Words
Effective Selling Techniques
Menu Selling Leasing Skills and Techniques
1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960′s and early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as “the new managerial responsibilities”. These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A “free market” dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world’s population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.
Just a quick search of Yahoo, Google, or MSN can provide truckers with thousands of lenders who are willing to finance most semi-trucks. In the same search, you can find many articles about how and where to finance that truck, but you might not find a great deal of information about where you should avoid when you’re looking for a loan company.Buying a new semi-truck, whether new or used, is both an exciting and nerve racking for seasoned and new truckers. Because of the emotion and stress involved in the process, you might be ready to jump at the first company who pledges to support your business, but there are still some lenders that you should avoid. Many truckers with many different kinds of businesses and vehicles exist, so these companies might occasionally satisfy the needs of some truckers. But truckers should at least consider them carefully, bearing in mind that they might not be the best decision.1. The physical office of a loan provider who also has an online businessAlthough many people, especially those who are on the road for much of their lives, enjoy taking care of their business online, some think they can get better deals by showing up at the store in person. Because Internet providers have a much lower overhead than companies who have storefronts, they can usually offer better deals. Even if you’re going to go with a large, corporate finance, you can probably get a better deal online because the company spends less money on signing you up online than signing up a customer in the store.2. A loan company that offers high interest ratesIf you have a low credit score, or a history of poor credit decisions, then you might be excited that you can get financing at all, but high interest rate loans can leave you still paying on a truck that has broken down or been sold years ago. High interest rates mean you ultimately pay more for the cost of a loan, and this not only harms your own financial portfolio, but it can also be a poor business decision. In addition, loans that have high interest rates may also have other stipulations that make them difficult to deal with. For instance, certain penalties for paying late or missing payments can cause real financial distress.3. An institution with which you have a bad relationshipThe institution that you choose for your loan can be just as important as its interest rate or whether or not the company can be accessed online. Whether you’re going through a traditional bank, a company that you’ve used in the past, or a company that you have used in some other capacity, make sure you consider your previous interactions with this company. Negative issues between you and this institution can affect your interest rate, or if you’re approved for a truck loan at all. Also, if you haven’t been happy with the company in the past, odds are you won’t be happy in the future, even if it is offering you instant approval.Although some truckers may find that using these methods and institutions can benefit their businesses, these institutions are generally the ones to avoid.