What is Employment and Support Allowance?This is intended to be a benefit to assist people who have difficulty in holding down a regular job, are long term sick or have other issues.A good friend of mine was having a terrible time with the DWP’s Employment and Support Allowance, as the allowance rates have been cut while on appeal and he was receiving contribution based employment and support allowance however this ran out and was then placed on to income based ESA less than £100 for two weeks benefit, to top it all off the appeals process is currently taking over 6 months so having realised he could not survive much longer especially not 6 months or more, he looked into getting working tax credit.As the pain in his lower back restricts him from sitting or standing for too long, he has found that going self employed is the only reasonable way to make a comfortable living and to support his family.The AppealA rather informal meeting in a room with 3 adjudicators 1 will probably be a medical practitioner and the other 2 will know the ins and outs of the law relating to ESA, they will review the appeal papers, any medical evidence you supply to support your claim and ask you some questions relating to your illness or disability and you may have to undergo a medical examination on the day. They will then decide whether the decision makers’ decision should stand or be overturned.The general consensus is that even going to a tribunal will not make much difference as the government are now taking a hard stand on reducing the benefits bill at any cost.Taking action now will be a better option.Work in a job that causes constant pain or take the sensible option?The consideration of self employment should be considered as you can work from the comfort of your own home. As long as you work for over 16 hours and can find a suitable application for your time you qualify for Working Tax Credit.What is the HMRC Working Tax Credit?Working Tax Credit from the HMRC in my opinion is a benefit that aims to make it worthwhile for people to go to work and in turn reduce the unemployment benefit figures. However Tax Credits are a very useful support benefit and should be viewed that way.How is he going to work at home?Having recently been disallowed ESA my good friend has decided to take the plunge into working from home. Having decided that setting up his own business is his best option as he can work when he is able and has the comforts of home, where he finds he can relieve the pain by changing what he does and for how long he does it.The idea of making and selling something online is rather daunting but if done correctly can be very lucrative and with the added “bonus” of getting working tax credits this can boost your initial weekly income by up to £100 if not more.Check out the disabled link on the Tax Credit calculator as claiming ESA previously qualifies you for the disablement premium.What sort of business is he going to do?Here lies the problem, when I first spoke to him about this he had no idea where to start and didn’t think he had any skills or expertise in any area, however after I showed him a couple of websites of qualified mentors and teachers he chose one, stuck with it and followed the instructions he is off to a flying start and has just had his first $500 week.
Although photography has been in the market for quite some time, some people still ask “how much it’s going to cost me?”, “what a digital camera can do?” and “why do I need photography?”Let’s look at each of them in detail:As digital photography is getting more popular, things are going to get cheaper. One of the reasons is that manufacturers are competing for market share and they are more likely to launch cheaper cameras with more functions. Just look at the compact digital camera in the market now, you can get a camera with at least 9 megapixels and 10x optical zoom at the price of less than $300. Even the DSLR cameras nowadays are getting more and more affordable.Also when competitions are getting stronger, manufacturers will try to make cameras with as many features as possible. It is like an unwritten rule that compact digital cameras nowadays must be able to record video and audio. When you launch a point and shoot camera without this feature, your potential clients might not even want to look at it.Also some digital cameras nowadays are equipped with sophisticated editing software and touch screen capability. You can now add stars, fog it up or add other wacky stuff on the camera.Since you can operate your camera with touch screen, you can expect that one day, you will see the LCD screen big enough to occupy the back of your camera. Can you imagine how much fun it is to look at your pictures in such a big screen and it will be more breath taking when the manufacturers throw in wide angle lens together.Now, when you are going into digital photography, it is only logic that you have a digital camera. Photography is more than a hobby. It is about keeping the memory of that special moment. You want to remind yourself that you were once there at that period. You want to be able to show your child that you were young once and how life was back then. It is a different experience when you look back at your photos 10 years ago. Go have a look at them now.
Individuals, who have bought new cars recently, need to apply for car insurance policies. The law in the U.S says, it is mandatory for every car owner to have an insurance policy otherwise, the person will be held liable and may have to pay hefty fine along with imprisonment.Many times, buyers thinking of buying new cars are confused and unsure as how to get car insurance. Such people can start their search for car insurance by obtaining insurance quotes from agents or better yet online.Start by locating some good insurance agents. These insurance agents give away the quotes of the different auto insurers that offer car insurance policies. However, make sure to approach several insurance agents, because most agents work for a single company. However, this method is time consuming and people may have to pay fees to the agents.Therefore, individuals may obtain car insurance quotes through Internet web sites. Simply, fill in the personal details and car details. And, within a few seconds, people will obtain car insurance quotes of different reputed companies. Compare quotes of different companies and select the one that offers best rates, discounts, benefits, and easy premiums.How to Apply For Car Insurance:After selecting a particular company, an insurance buyer may apply for insurance policy online. For that purpose, buyer may log on to the same site (from where he or she had obtained quotes), fill the car insurance application, and submit it. The back office staff of that web site sends this online form to the particular (selected) company. The insurance company then sends it’s agent to insurance buyer’s residence.The insurance agent explains all the formalities to the insurance buyer. The agent hands over another application form which individuals need to fill in. Individual has to attach certain documents while submitting the form. It typically includes copy of driver’s license, SSN (Social Security Number), address proof, copy of job offer letter, age proof, bank statements, and salary slip of past three months.Individual have to furnish car documents such as car purchase papers, car loan papers (if any) and so on. If people wish to apply for car insurance through local insurance agents, then as described earlier, individuals need to obtain quotes of different companies. Select the ideal company and ask agents to guide them with the formalities. The insurance agent then furnishes the application form and the rest of the process is same as above.Conclusion:After submitting the insurance application form, the car insurance company verifies the documents and sees whether the information furnished by applicants is true or not. If people fill any wrong information in the application form, the company rejects their form. Such applicants may find it difficult to obtain car insurance from other insurance companies too. Nobody like a liar and a cheat.If the company is convinced that the details are true, it provides car coverage to applicants. The process may take anywhere between 15 to 20 days. This is how individuals can get car insurance policies at affordable rates.To take the first step and get multiple quotes please consider the sites below. They can help you find the best deals around.
Interested in finance and insurance (F&I)? Love cars? Looking for a way to merge the two into a long-lasting and fulfilling career in the automotive industry? It’s time to consider a career in auto sales and F&I management. Now is a great time to invest in F&I training, which can provide everything you need to succeed in this career. That means you will acquire excellent leadership and communication skills and have the expertise required to handle the financial and legal aspects of a sales transaction.Automotive Business Manager programs are designed to teach the skills required to oversee the financial and legal aspects of the automotive industry. Students in these automotive training programs are trained in finance and lease options, sale of after-market products and the use of specialized software.Becoming an F&I manager means you will be in the center of the action. It also means you will have a direct impact on profitability and be rewarded accordingly. Need another reason to invest in F&I manager? Job Futures 2000 predicts that more than one-third of all jobs created in Canada will require a skilled trade designation or a college diploma.What about the extensive restructuring of the automotive industry? There has been a lot of change, but the automotive industry remains one of the world’s largest and most important business sectors. Moreover, a surge in demand is expected as consumers make purchases that would normally have been made in the last two years and additional demand is created by increases in population, new consumer offerings and improved manufacturing technology. Employment prospects for automotive sales and F&I management are good for the following reasons:
A growing shortage of well trained individuals to fill sales occupations
Service Canada predicts there will be strong demand for qualified candidates in Sales and Service, Business, Finance and Administration “because this sector will account for more than 45% of all retirements over the next five years.”
Significant worldwide growth within the automotive industryYou know what happens when demand for a specific job goes up. Salaries also go up. That’s exactly what is happening for F&I Professionals. Key elements of F&I training programs can include the following areas of study:
Business Manager’s Role in the Dealership
Financial Institutions and Their Requirements
Getting the Contracts Purchased
Credit Reporting Overview
Understanding Credit Scores and Risks
Reading Credit Reports
Prequalification Using Credit Reports
Use a Customer-Friendly, Aggressive F&I Process
Qualify Your Customer, Use The Right Words
Effective Selling Techniques
Menu Selling Leasing Skills and Techniques
1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date.2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have “local seeds” to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some “local seeds” that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on “Ujamaa” (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the “Ujamaa” ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania’s education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960′s and early 1970s’, grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as “the new managerial responsibilities”. These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A “free market” dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world’s population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.
Just a quick search of Yahoo, Google, or MSN can provide truckers with thousands of lenders who are willing to finance most semi-trucks. In the same search, you can find many articles about how and where to finance that truck, but you might not find a great deal of information about where you should avoid when you’re looking for a loan company.Buying a new semi-truck, whether new or used, is both an exciting and nerve racking for seasoned and new truckers. Because of the emotion and stress involved in the process, you might be ready to jump at the first company who pledges to support your business, but there are still some lenders that you should avoid. Many truckers with many different kinds of businesses and vehicles exist, so these companies might occasionally satisfy the needs of some truckers. But truckers should at least consider them carefully, bearing in mind that they might not be the best decision.1. The physical office of a loan provider who also has an online businessAlthough many people, especially those who are on the road for much of their lives, enjoy taking care of their business online, some think they can get better deals by showing up at the store in person. Because Internet providers have a much lower overhead than companies who have storefronts, they can usually offer better deals. Even if you’re going to go with a large, corporate finance, you can probably get a better deal online because the company spends less money on signing you up online than signing up a customer in the store.2. A loan company that offers high interest ratesIf you have a low credit score, or a history of poor credit decisions, then you might be excited that you can get financing at all, but high interest rate loans can leave you still paying on a truck that has broken down or been sold years ago. High interest rates mean you ultimately pay more for the cost of a loan, and this not only harms your own financial portfolio, but it can also be a poor business decision. In addition, loans that have high interest rates may also have other stipulations that make them difficult to deal with. For instance, certain penalties for paying late or missing payments can cause real financial distress.3. An institution with which you have a bad relationshipThe institution that you choose for your loan can be just as important as its interest rate or whether or not the company can be accessed online. Whether you’re going through a traditional bank, a company that you’ve used in the past, or a company that you have used in some other capacity, make sure you consider your previous interactions with this company. Negative issues between you and this institution can affect your interest rate, or if you’re approved for a truck loan at all. Also, if you haven’t been happy with the company in the past, odds are you won’t be happy in the future, even if it is offering you instant approval.Although some truckers may find that using these methods and institutions can benefit their businesses, these institutions are generally the ones to avoid.
Until the early 1900′s staffing agencies, also known as employment agencies, generally did not exist. Communities were smaller, and because there was no telephone or internet, people communicated face to face. People in small towns knew each other and hiring was based on that personal knowledge. One of the first staffing agencies was created in 1906 in response to the enormous calamity of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. With an entire city of people displaced, there was an urgent need to hire workers on a mass scale to re-establish businesses that had been destroyed by the earthquake and fire, and to rebuild the city. Out of this urgent need to match workers to jobs the staffing agency industry was born.Today the staffing industry is a multi-billion dollar industry. There are many staffing companies with more than $1 Billion in sales; the number of companies with over $100 Million in sales grew in 2006. According to the American Staffing Association, “America’s staffing companies employed an average of 2.96 million temporary and contract workers per day in 2006…and they added an average of 52,000 jobs per day in 2006″.Why are staffing agencies so popular? In a word, it’s because of flexibility. Staffing agencies help workers to find work when they want, and they help business hire workers when they are needed. Staffing agencies provide workers to fill in when regular workers are absent, to provide extra help during busy times such as Christmas, and to work on special projects. The variety of jobs provided by staffing agencies is enormous.A partial listing of staffing agency jobs include the fields of engineering, aviation, environmental services, architecture, administrative services, automotive services, energy, manufacturing, construction, mortgage banking, contact centers, science, health care, secretarial, manual labor, accounting, finance, executive recruitment, temporary staffing and student employment. One staffing agency specializes in administrative staffing by Microsoft Office Certified Professionals.Most parents encourage their children to go to college and learn something that will help them get a job after they graduate. After four or more years of college, many graduates would prefer to take some time off to see the world, or just find themselves. In the movie, Back to School, Rodney Dangerfield was cast as a parent who goes back to school primarily to get his son to stay in school so his son can get an education and a job. Rodney is invited to give the college commencement address. ”It’s a jungle out there,” he says. ”So my advice is don’t go. Live at home. Let your parents worry about it.” Perhaps this is the sociological reason for the growth of staffing agencies to provide people with jobs.According to MSN Encarta, the word job is a “noun and a verb:noun (plural jobs) Definition: 1. paid occupation: an activity such as a trade or profession that somebody does regularly for pay, or a paid position doing thisShe’s got a new job.2. task: something that remains to be done or dealt withI have a couple jobs to do this afternoon.several jobs around the house3. assignment: an individual piece of work of a particular natureWe managed to complete the job in under a week.4. function: the role that somebody or something fulfillsIt’s her job to look after the finances.5. difficulty: something that is difficult to accomplishI had quite a job getting it to start.6. quality of work done: a completed piece of work of a particular qualityThey did a very good job on the exterior.7. particular kind of object: a particular kind of object, especially a manufactured item ( informal )one of those big four-wheel-drive jobs8. crime: a criminal act, especially a robbery ( informal )a bank job9. computer programming task: a computer programming task run as a single application or unit”All of the nouns, with the exception of crime, relate to what staffing agencies provide. As a verb, with the exception of a jobber who deals in wholesale merchandise, most of the definitions relate to what staffing agencies do:
“verb (past and past participle jobbed, present participle jobobing, 3rd person present singular jobs) Definition:1. intransitive verb work occasionally: to take occasional or casual workHe jobs as a gardener from time to time…2. transitive verb distribute work to others: to subcontract portions of contract work to othersjob out the plumbing work on the house”It would be unusual for most staffing agencies to provide a songwriter or an artist to a business. This is a pity because there are so many songwriters and artists that need jobs. One of the greatest vocal rock and roll songs ever written was called Get A Job by the Silhouettes. It was recorded in the late 1950′s. It was a number one hit on the pop charts and it sold over one million copies. The song was written by Richard Lewis after he completed his military service. When he came home he had no work and his mother told him to “Get A Job” and this inspired him to write the song.The lyrics are:”CHORUSSha na na na, sha na na na na(repeat 4x)Yip dip dip dip dip dip, bum bum bum bum bum bumSha na na na, sha na na na naWell, from about the time every morning when she wakes me up and cries,”Get a job!”Well, after breakfast every day, she throws a polish on my way and never fails to say (bass)Get a jobREPEAT CHORUSOh, oh, and when I get the paperI read it through and throughAnd my girl never fails to seeIf there is any work for meBRIDGEAnd when I go back to my houseI hear my woman’s mouthPreachin’ and a-cryin’, tell me that I’m lying ’bout a job”Whoa-ooh-oh, and when I get the paperI read it through and throughAnd my girl never fails to seeIf there is any work for me”If Mr. Lewis had other marketable skills he might have joined the legions of people working for the staffing agency industry. One of the biggest concerns of a growing staffing agency is cash flow. To grow into a multimillion dollar business, it takes a considerable amount of cash. Payroll obligations must be met every two weeks to pay staffing agency employees, but the actual employers (i.e. the companies that are using the staffing agency people) may take 30 to 60 days to pay their bills. Accounts receivable financing can provide staffing agencies with virtually unlimited cash for growth. The main requirement is to have staffing agency employees working for creditworthy businesses.This financing technique can accelerate cash flow for exponential growth because the cash for the invoices is available immediately every time an employer is billed for services rendered. Commercial finance companies are the primary providers of accounts receivable financing for staffing agencies; some banks are involved in financing larger, multi-million dollar transactions that are low risk. As a general rule, banks will not provide accounts receivable financing for a staffing agency that is a start-up or for one that is growing very rapidly in the early years of their business.The bottom line: if you need to get a job, a staffing agency may be an excellent choice to find work on your terms; if you need cash flow to grow a staffing agency, accounts receivable financing may be an excellent choice for financing growth without bank terms.Copyright © 2007 Gregg Financial Services
Success is not an overnight occurrence for most businesses. Years of hard work and struggle are a common denominator for most enterprises. Success as a concept can be complicated because it may involve more than profits on a balance sheet. The MSN Encarta dictionary defines success as:1. Achievement of intention: the achievement of something planned or attempted;2. Attainment of fame, wealth, or power: impressive achievement, especially the attainment of fame, wealth, or power;3. Something that turns out well: something that turns out as planned or intended;4. Somebody successful: somebody who is wealthy.What is business failure? It may be that most businesses don’t die or fail; the owners close them for reasons unrelated to whether the business is making money. According to David Birch, former head of a research firm specializing in studying small business data, would-be entrepreneurs don’t realize what’s truly involved with running a business. He estimated survival rates:o First year: 85%o Second: 70%o Third: 62%o Fourth: 55%o Fifth: 50%o Sixth: 47%o Seventh: 44%o Eighth: 41%o Ninth: 38%o Tenth: 35%”Once you’ve hit five years, your odds of survival go way up,” Birch said. “Only two to three percent of businesses older than five shut down each year.” Hard statistics on business success vs. failure rates are hard to establish. Mark Twain once said, “The news of my death has been greatly exaggerated.” The same may be true for many businesses.Accounts receivable financing can help to make the difference between success and failure for many B2B businesses that need capital to grow. The terminology: invoice financing, invoice funding, factoring, factoring receivables and accounts receivable financing are all terms that mean essentially the same thing: the process of selling your invoices, your accounts receivable, to a commercial finance company to accelerate cash flow. You sell the account receivable. The commercial finance company advances you 70% to 90% of face value. Your customer pays the invoice to the commercial finance company. They rebate to you the difference between their fees and the remaining cash. If your business sells products or services to other businesses or to the government, with a gross margin of 25% or more you can grow profitably with accounts receivable financing; and you can give terms to your customers.Asset based financing is a form of accounts receivable financing for larger transactions. The main difference between asset based financing and accounts receivable financing is price: larger transactions may be priced with a spread of 2% to 4% over the prime rate plus an administrative fee compared to factoring fees of 1.5% to 4% per month. The actual amount of charges depends on the contract terms which vary widely. In this author’s article, Financial Myths vs. Financial Facts there is an extensive discussion regarding various pricing methods and outcomes.Imagine if your business were like a flower with the chance to bloom the first time in years. There is a plant known as Agave parryi, also known as the Century Plant. They often take forty to sixty years to flower. Then they die. Few businesses can wait that long to flower.The asset based lending industry is a multi-billion dollar business. Companies large, small, and startups participate in accounts receivable financing and asset based lending. Purchase order financing is available to pay for the cost of goods when purchase orders are too large for the business to self-fund the product. If you need help with capital to grow, these are important financing techniques to consider for your business’ success.In August 1965 The Beatles released a Studio Album called: Help! The song was a number one hit single. The song was written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. At this point in the career of the Beatles, they had not personally made much money and they may have been on the brink of failure because of artistic differences and financial naivety. John Lennon said that the lyrics to Help! were a cry for help and a clue to the confusion and despondency he felt. He also regretted the commercial pressures to make a successful upbeat record that compromised his artistic sensibilities. The Beatles succeeded in writing many of the most popular songs in music history; they were one of the most successful recording artists of all time. Nevertheless, the Beatles failed to stay together as a live performing group after 1970. There were only ten years of live performances. Decades of royalties and riches followed.Here are the lyrics to The Beatles – Help! by John Lennon and Paul McCartney:Help, I need somebody,Help, not just anybody,Help, you know I need someone, help.When I was younger, so much younger than today,I never needed anybody’s help in any way.But now these days are gone, I’m not so self assured,Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up the doors.Help me if you can, I’m feeling downAnd I do appreciate you being round.Help me, get my feet back on the ground,Won’t you please, please help me?And now my life has changed in oh so many ways,My independence seems to vanish in the haze.But every now and then I feel so insecure,I know that I just need you like I’ve never done before.Help me if you can, I’m feeling downAnd I do appreciate you being round.Help me, get my feet back on the ground,Won’t you please, please help me.When I was younger, so much younger than today,I never needed anybody’s help in any way.But now these days are gone, I’m not so self assured,Now I find I’ve changed my mind and opened up the doors.Help me if you can, I’m feeling downAnd I do appreciate you being round.Help me, get my feet back on the ground,Won’t you please, please help me, help me, help me, oh.The bottom line: if you need help with your cash flow for your B2B business, accounts receivable financing may be the answer for your success.Copyright © 2007 Gregg Financial Services
Can process management and project management actually co-exist? Not only have I found that they co-exist, but that they actually drive one another’s success.Have you ever heard the phrase “the devil is in the details”? I always thought that this saying was a little strange…until I began to work in project management. The funny thing is that once I got into project management this phrase made so much sense. I can remember being on one project where the project manager was much too myopic. All she cared about was data storage requirements and virtually nothing else. For this project manager, the devil in the details was never thought about, outside of the confines of data storage anyway. On another project, the project manager was so sure of his own abilities to “do his job” that he completely ignored the details altogether. The latter project had some disastrous outcomes…including Social Security deposits being returned to the state that sent them, which in turn resulted in that state discontinuing those payments. In other words, major customer impacts occurred because people were overly confident in their own ability to adapt to a changing process.So what does this have to do with project management? Everything. If a project is creating something unique, then it stands to reason that there are variables that are known and some that are unknown. Think of throwing a rock into a lake. You know that the rock hitting the water will cause a rippling effect on the water’s surface. What you don’t know is how many ripples it will cause or how far the ripples will disperse beyond the initial impact. Process management is a way of taking into account all that may happen as a result of the ripples in the water.Let’s say that there is a project is to implement new processing software into an existing data processing center. On the surface, this looks fairly easy. The processing center already exists and the technology is already in place. So other than information technology and/or information systems installing the new software and some training on how to use it, this is a fairly easy undertaking. This is equivalent to throwing the rock into the water. We have a rock, we have water, and we know that the rock hitting the water will create a rippling effect. Problem solved, right? What happens if all of the users of the new software are not physically located in the same processing center? What if there are individuals that send work to the processing center, via courier, because they are remotely located and therefore not able to use the technology that is available to others? Maybe this seems farfetched to you since we live in the 21st century, but I can assure you that it’s not.Here’s the crux of the problem. It’s human nature to make assumptions based on limited knowledge and/or lack of information…especially when dealing with a project. This is why in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), which is one of the standards for project management, process improvement is included in its Project Quality Management section. Process improvement, whether you call it process management, process design, or process engineering, is critical to ensuring that your project is implemented according to scope. If the project is designed according to scope, but fails when put into production, the project is a failure and its scope was never met. A basic assumption of a project is that it will work once fully implemented.Let’s look at process improvement from more of an organic standpoint. I use the term organic because we rarely think of process management and project management together. Like project management, process management has evolved into its own discipline. At its roots though, process management is simply a series of shapes and arrows used to illustrate a process. This is the intrinsic value of process management. It allows you to illustrate the process before it is even in place. Put another way, you can lay out the process before the project is even close to being completed.I stated that at its roots, process management is simply a series of shapes and arrows used to illustrate a process. You can map a process (also called a flowchart) using as little as three shapes, an oval, a rectangle, and a diamond. Each shape represents a specific part of the process. An oval represents the beginning or end of a process…the first or last step. A rectangle illustrates an activity. If you place a rectangular box under another box, the second box identifies a task. A diamond is a call out for a decision. It demonstrates that there is a yes or no question within the process that has to be answered. Interestingly enough, this simple shape often is one of the most powerful in identifying gaps (one or more breaks in a process that can cause rework, customer impact, failure, or any other number of issues) within a project and/or process. The arrows are used to direct the “flow” of the process from one point to another.As an example of the win-win of using process management during a project, I was recently on a project where data was being converted from one system to another. The process for this is often referred to as data mapping. You map the data and the fields in the system where they currently reside and map them to where they will reside in the new system. When this was process mapped, the diamond shape was used to ask if the data from our department had been mapped to the new system. The answer was yes. The next activity was to determine how that data would be identified in the new system, to which no one knew the answer. This was a huge gap. If the data had been mapped, then someone should have been able to tell us what that data would look like in the new system. We quickly found out that no one could validate that our area had been included in the original data mapping. What would the impact had been if after the project no one could find the data in the new system? Once again process mapping paid for itself, as it usually does.Another benefit of process mapping is the ability to flowchart the conceptualized process. Let’s say that there are a number of activities that you know need to happen and how they will be done. What you may not know is who will do all of the actual work. Think of a loan being originated. Someone is going to take the loan application; someone is going to process the loan application; someone is going to underwrite the loan; and someone is going to close the loan. But who is going to file the documents and will they be scanned into an imaging application? This is an unknown. By flowcharting the process you are able to take the activities you know will happen and then the activities you “think” will happen and create a picture of the process. By using the same shapes, but changing the color or texture of the “conceptual” ones, you are able to illustrate the know activities from the “how we think it will be” activities. This allows others to opine on the process before there is a conflict, such as incorrect procedures being written or worse yet, that part of the process being totally neglected.Perhaps one of the greatest benefits of process mapping, within the context of project management, is that it allows you to better control the work of the project. When the core processes are placed in flowcharts, it is much easier to identify control gaps within the process itself. Control gaps are, in and of themselves, risks within the project. Let’s use the above example of a loan being originated. A decision point (diamond shape) in the process is validating that the loan has been underwritten correctly. What happens if no one validates the underwriting? Or, what if the one validating the underwriting is the same person that underwrote the loan in the first place? Segregation of duties has to be a part of the process in order to protect the integrity of the process itself. A flowchart would show if this control has been sufficiently setup or if there is potential for a control failure.Finally, the use of swim lanes is another value added dimension of process mapping. Swim lanes are used to track a process through all of the areas that need to be a part of it, in order for the process to be completed. Think of an Olympic pool. You automatically picture a pool with swim lanes, each one belonging to a different swimmer. Again, let’s use the loan origination example. In most cases the origination of a loan takes several areas (called cross-functional areas) working together for a loan to be completely processed. This could entail various areas such as sales, loan application processing, underwriting, closing, and file management. While no single area owns the entire process, they all work a part of the process to ultimately complete a single loan. By employing swim lanes, you segregate each area in the process into its own lane. Then, using the shapes already discussed, you track the process moving from one swim lane to another. This not only illustrates the areas responsible for the entire process, but also the decision points, controls, and ultimately the interdependencies. Getting the process map validated by all of the areas involved seals the deal. Once all agree on the process, a responsibility matrix can be developed and the project is in a better state of control because of it.